The new yellow arrow indicates the latest hybrid zone cardio, towards east edge of a 100 kilometer

Maxent-generated species distribution habits (SDMs). a) Northern Jacana (J. spinosa); b) Wattled Jacana (J. jacana); c) new hypomelaena race regarding Wattled Jacana; d) Close-right up away from mutual SDMs to have spinosa and jacana in their contact region. During the a- c) red circles depict varieties observations used to build brand new activities, if you find yourself bluish implies areas with high habitat suitability inside our SDMs (diversity 0.cuatro – step 1.0). Inside d) dark gray indicates areas where habitats are forecast becoming appropriate for just you to taxon while blue ways places that models having both taxa has actually predict viability over 0.4. wider region of compatible habitat both for variety. Purple circles show places that phenotypic hybrid specimens had been compiled.

Suggest Bioclim thinking between the 239 J. spinosa and 246 J. jacana occurrence facts were significantly various other for 9 out-of fifteen ecological parameters immediately after a great Bonferonni handle for numerous tests. Six of one’s nine (BioClim layers step one, dos, 5, 8, nine, 10) level certain aspect of heat (age.grams. annual suggest temperatures otherwise suggest temperatures out of driest quarter), as well as on average, J. spinosa takes place in hotter (or warmer for the a specific seasons) habitats than simply J. jacana (More file step 3: Contour S1, More file cuatro: Desk S2). The remainder about three details (BioClim levels 13,fifteen,19) is with the rain; once more J. spinosa happens in situations which have highest water (or even more rainfall inside a specific seasons) in accordance with J. jacana (A lot more file 3: Profile S1, Even more document 4: Desk S2).

Before now study, it was uncertain if or not jacanas even hybridized

Variety shipping models towards the various New world jacana taxa the differed rather in every test metrics (D, I, RR; More file 5: Table S3). First off, the abilities reveal that the fresh habitats predict are suitable for J. spinosa and J. jacana is rather different, whether or not i imagine the mainland J. jacana or perhaps the newest all-black colored J. j. hypomelaena race. I as well as receive significant differences between J. j. hypomelaena additionally the rest of the continental shipment off J. jacana.


North (J. spinosa) and you may Wattled Jacanas (J. jacana) hybridize where range of these two types fulfill in the west Panama. The latest slim hybrid zone appears to be caused by brand new communication within behavioral popularity out-of J. spinosa counteracted from the an inappropriate J. spinosa habitat eastern of one’s contact zone. Wetmore speculated that specific specimens on region were hybrids, but offered pair info. Betts advertised a bird having frequently mixed facial design and you can plumage throughout the Osa Peninsula into the southern area Costa Rica around the edging with Panama, but the hybrid characteristics associated with the specimen is rejected of the Jenni & Mace just who argued that bird could have been an kids in place of a hybrid, and you will stated that no definitive hybrids involving the types was known. However, the fresh earliest museum sample categorized due to the fact a great “hybrids” times so you can 1924 and you may was obtained at a place shorter up coming thirty-five kilometres to the west of the modern phenotypic hybrid region heart (and you will really during the phenotypic introgression area) recommending a persistent hybrid region in the southwest Panama (Extra document step one: Table S1). In general, the nature off hybridization of the kinds has been blurred of the the point that this new J. j. hypomelaena subspecies away from J. jacana happening during the main and you may eastern Panama has actually inky-black colored dorsal plumage whereas the greater amount of common populations from J. jacana in South usa feel the chestnut-colored dorsal plumage attribute of all communities out of J. spinosa. In reality, J. spinosa and you may Southern American J. jacana are best renowned of the facial ornamentation and you may female dimensions instead than plumage. The analyses away from phenotypic and hereditary a good and you will past completely establish hybridization between them kinds, and supply the first documentation out-of a long-term crossbreed zone within the an additionally-polyandrous bird types . Having fun with decimal quotes out of phenotypic characters, we found that 16% away from adult jacanas about get in touch with zone might possibly be classified as the hybrids, and you can 46% of your specimens exhibited certain proof of phenotypic introgression anywhere between absolute adult forms.

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